Epitope maps of the four pesticides dissolved in the pH7 buffer or D2O. 2015;63:8439–44. AU - Serianni, A. S. AU - Finley, J. W. PY - 1990. In particular, they observed that the content in metabolites relevant for the tomato taste, such as fructose and organic acids, depended on the specific variety . Later, the same research group used a similar 1H- and 13C-HRMAS approach to characterize two Italian cultivars of garlic (Allium sativum L.) . These results seemed to confirm that a mechanism of organic matter preservation in soil occurs by adsorption on clay minerals of hydrophobic products of biological tissues degradation .  reported the use of HRMAS to differentiate Italian sweet peppers (Capsicum annum L.) as a function of both cultivar and geographical origin . Levitt M. Spin dynamics: basics of nuclear magnetic resonance. Bon D, Gilard V, Massou S, Pérès G, Malet-Martino M, Martino R, et al. Department of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Swabi, Pakistan. Remarkably, they exploited the 13C labeling of plants by making use of 3D experiments, such as 1H-13C HCCH-COSY and 1H-13C HCCH-TOCSY, to unambiguously assign several signals. Y1 - 1990  proposed a pioneering method to in vivo study microorganisms subjected to stress conditions . Despite the focus of HRMAS has been greatly devoted on clinical biomedicine, materials chemistry, and metabolomics, there are already enough studies that show useful applications on agricultural issues. 2012;63:152–64. The same authors observed that the detection of aromatic signals may be significantly enhanced when the soil is swollen in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) rather than in water. Insights into the structure of cutin and cutan from Agave americana leaf cuticle using HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Lam L, Soong R, Sutrisno A, de Visser R, Simpson MJ, Wheeler HL, et al. This technique combined with HPLC analyses successfully discriminated Italian Royal Jellies from Chinese ones . Other works have reported the adoption of HRMAS technique to study the effects of different agricultural practices on plants metabolic profiles, thus relating the soil management to agrofood products. Wiklund S, Karlsson M, Antti H, Johnels D, Sjöström M, Wingsle G, et al. Pizzeghello D, Cocco S, Francioso O, Ferrari E, Cardinali A, Nardi S, et al. Liu M, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC. A relatively moderate spin rate ranging between 3 and 6 kHz is thus recommended, in order to reach best compromise between resolution and sample stability. It combines the advantages of both solid- and liquid-state NMR by allowing to concomitantly measure intact and non-manipulated samples. 1H and 31P HRMAS NMR spectroscopy was also applied to in vivo evaluate the composition of Aporrectodea caliginosa earthworms . Doty FD, Entzminger G, Yang AY. Moreover, HRMAS allows us to use edited pulse sequences which, especially in the case of biological tissues or agrofood products, may provide a simultaneous information on polar and non-polar components without the need of preliminary sample extraction. Copyright 2008 by Environ. J Magn Reson. Deshmukh AP, Simpson AJ, Hadad CM, Hatcher PG. Oliveira CS, Carlos EF, Vieira LGE, Liãoc LM, Alcantara GB. Finally, Capitani et al. Both fungicides were found to delay the germination cycle in wheat seeds, while thiram, a non-systemic fungicide, affected the metabolic processes to a larger extent than the systemic fungicide bavistin. 2005;3:353–62. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 5). Righi V, Parenti F, Tugnoli V, Schenetti L, Mucci A. Crocus sativus petals: waste or valuable resource? The high resolution of HRMAS spectra is due to the reduction of H–H dipolar couplings to few hundred Hz in many semi-solid samples, in respect to the 20–50 kHz usually found for rigid solid materials. High-resolution diffusion and relaxation edited one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy of biological fluids. Moreover, edited (namely “filtered”) pulse sequences, such as T2- and diffusion-based sequences, can be used in HRMAS systems [10–12]. A new metabonomic strategy for analysing the growth process of the poplar tree. 2005;331:452–8. Agric. The complex relationship between molecular structure and biological function is a central theme of most contemporary biochemical studies. NMR-based metabolomics for organic farming traceability of early potatoes. These results confirmed previous works that the hydrophobicity of humic fractions can affect aggregate wetting and slaking by modifying the pore size distribution with a shift from micro- and mesopores to ultramicropores. Most interestingly, the authors modulated the MAS spin rate to distinguish between immobilized (water-inaccessible starch domains) and mobile components, thus inferring that their distribution depended on the starch granules assembly . Bunescu A, Garric J, Vollat B, Canet-Soulas E, Graveron-Demilly D, Fauvelle F. In vivo proton HRMAS NMR metabolic profile of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Iglesias MJ, García-López J, Collados-Luján JF, López-Ortiz F, Díaz M, Toresano F, et al. Structural characterization of suberan isolated from river birch (Betula nigra) bark. It can find applications in agriculture for the quality analysis of fruits and vegetables at the industrial or semi-industrial level. NMR spectroscopy. HRMAS applications in agriculture Soil humic matter, environmental studies, and agricultural practices. An advanced NMR application for the identification of the composition of woody angiosperm plants reports a detailed characterization of 13C-labeled poplar plants, when these were preliminarily grown in 13CO2-enriched atmosphere and supplied with [13C6] glucose to roots . In the case of fruit studies, 1H and 13C HRMAS NMR spectra were helpful in identifying the progressive changes in composition of mango pulp during 19 days of ripening . J Agron Crop Sci. This work showed that the metabolomic approach developed by HRMAS enabled the detection of the significant changes in phenolic compounds contained in As-treated plants. The advanced NMR pulse sequence STDD (saturation transfer double difference) was used to prove the pH-dependent (D2O or sodium phosphate D2O buffer solution at pH7) interactions between a peat soil and several contaminants, including 1-naphthol and the pesticides trifluralin, acifluorfen, and 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenol . Magn Reson Chem. Additionally, this technique may differentiate molecular species according to their degree of mobility in hydrated matrices. 2016;214:539–48. Nevertheless, the use of liquid-state NMR spectroscopy for the molecular identification of agricultural matrices (plant roots, leaves and fruits, animal tissues, soils, etc.) 2013;171:9–18. Advanced and reliable analytical techniques are demanded to face up the ever more challenging issues related to the wide field of agricultural chemistry. The authors observed a significant enhancement of seedlings germination accompanied by a change in leaf metabolome that was treatment-specific, thereby inferring that the method may help in developing new biofertilizers based on fungi extracts . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. Authors S J Schmidt 1 , A S Serianni, J W Finley. Eur J Soil Sci. Moreover, the signal resolution achievable by HRMAS is sufficient to perform most of 1D and 2D homo and heteronuclear NMR experiments, inasmuch as those conducted by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. Marino G, Righi V, Simoni A, Schenetti L, Mucci A, Tugnoli V, et al. Citri, which is responsible for the citrus cancer. Practical Applications of NMR in Industry Conference (PANIC) was started to provide a unique interactive forum for discussion of the latest developments in NMR for practical applications to real problems faced by scientists in industry and research institutions. Sample spinning NMR a practical guide for natural samples basics of nuclear resonance! Pérez I, Grusak MA, Vasconcelos MW, Gil AM molecular journey of contamination via comprehensive multiphase spectroscopy..., Kingery WM, Simpson AJ for analysing the growth process of the poplar tree, Abbruscato P, al. ( Intech Open ) under CC by 3.0 license application of nmr in agriculture M, Cafiero,... 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